CBSE – 10th Standard Science

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Class 10 Chapter 3 – Metals and Non Metals

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Reaction with Water

Aqua regia, (Latin for ‘royal water’) is a freshly prepared mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid and concentrated nitric acid in the ratio of 3:1. It can dissolve gold, even though neither of these acids can do so alone. Aqua regia is a highly corrosive, fuming liquid. It is one of the few reagents that is able to dissolve gold and platinum.

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Metals react with Solutions of other Metal

Metals react with Acids

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Metals react with Solutions of other Metal salts

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The Reactivity Series

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Formation of Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2)

The atomic number of magnesium is 12
Electronic configuration of magnesium: 2, 8, 2
Number of electrons in outermost orbit = 2
Valence electron = 2

Atomic number of chlorine = 17
Electronic configuration of chlorine: 2, 8, 7
Electrons in outermost orbit = 7
Therefore, valence electrons = 7

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Magnesium loses two electrons in order to obtain stable electronic configuration. Each of the two chlorine atoms gains one electron lost by magnesium to obtain stable electronic configuration. The bonds so formed between magnesium and chlorine are ionic bonds and compound (magnesium chloride) is an ionic compound.

The important properties of ionic compounds are as follows:

  • The ionic compounds are usually crystalline solids. For example, sodium chloride is a crystalline solid.
  • Ionic compounds have high melting points and high boiling points. For example, sodium chloride has a high melting point of 800°C and a high boiling point of 1413°
  • Ionic compounds are usually soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvents (like ether, acetone, alcohol, benzene, kerosene and carbon tetrachloride). For example, sodium chloride is soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvents like ether, benzene or kerosene oil.
  • Ionic compounds conduct electricity when dissolved in water or when melted.

Extraction of Metals

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Course Curriculum