CBSE – 8th Standard Science

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Conservation Of Plants And Animals

Consequences of Deforestation

  • Deforestation increases the temperature and pollution level on the earth. It increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Ground water level also gets lowered.

Deforestation and Its Causes

  • Deforestation. means clearing of forests and using that land for other purposes.

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  • Trees in the forest are cut for , Procuring land for cultivation., Building houses and factories., Making furniture or using wood as fuel.
  • If cutting of trees continues fertility of soil will decrease, the increase in temperature on the earth disturbs the water cycle and may reduce rainfall. This could cause droughts.
  • Fewer trees result in more soil erosion. Removal of the top layer of the soil exposes the lower, hard and rocky layers, It is called desertification.
  • Deforestation also leads to a decrease in the water holding capacity of the soil. The movement of water from the soil surface into the ground (infiltration rate) is reduced. So, there are floods.

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Conservation of Forest and Wildlife

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  • To protect our flora and fauna and their habitats, protected areas called sanctuaries, national parks and biosphere reserves have been earmarked. Plantation, cultivation, grazing, felling trees, hunting and poaching are prohibited there.
  • Areas where animals are protected from any disturbance to them and their habitat are Sanctuary
  • Areas reserved for wild life where they can freely use the habitats and natural resources are called National Park
  • Large areas of protected land for conservation of wild life, plant and animal resources and traditional life of the tribals living in the area become Biosphere Reserve

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Flora and Fauna

  • Some animals and plants typically belong to a particular area. The plants and animals found in a particular area are termed flora and fauna of that area.

 

Endemic Species

  • Endemic species are those species of plants and animals which are found exclusively in a particular area. They are not naturally found anywhere else.

 

Wildlife Sanctuary

  • wildlife sanctuaries provide protection and suitable living conditions to wild animals.  where killing (poaching) or capturing of animals is strictly prohibited. National Park
  • National parks are large and diverse enough to protect whole sets of ecosystems. They preserve flora, fauna, landscape and historic objects of an area.
  • Animals whose numbers are diminishing to a level that they might be extinct are known as the endangered animals.

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  • An ecosystem is made of all the plants, animals and microorganisms in an area along with non-living components such as climate, soil, river deltas etc.
  • Red Data Book is the source book which keeps a record of all the endangered animals and plants. There are different Red Data Books for plants, animals and other species.

 

Migration

  • Birds who cover long distances to reach another land are known as migratory birds Migratory birds fly to far away areas every year during a particular time because of climatic changes. They fly for laying eggs as the weather in their natural habitat becomes very cold and inhospitable.

 

Reforestation 

  • Reforestation is restocking of the destroyed forests by planting new trees.

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