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Coal and Petroleum (Chapter 5): CBSE Class 8 Science
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There are 2 types of sources as Natural and Man-made resources. It further divides into Renewable and non-renewable resources.
We know that coal and petroleum are non-renewable because they take thousands of years to form.
Also, energy is in high demand due to the increase in population and this need is fulfilled by using nonrenewable resources.
Due to this, nonrenewable resources are in danger as they can get exhausted. So, to overcome this problem, scientists are trying to discover other resources that can be useful in place of nonrenewable resources.
Now, Start with Resources.
Any object or substance, living or non-living, that has utility is known as resources.
Natural Resources: Sun, Air, Water, Forest
Man-Made Resources: Medicines, Vehicles, Paints
Types of Natural Resources
Coal and Petroleum are Exhaustible types of resources.
Now, let understand what is fuel?
Fuel is a substance which when brunt gives heat.
Fossil fuels are a specific type of fuel.
Fossil fuels are the fuels that are formed from the dead remains of living organisms over a long period of time.
There are mainly three (3) types of fossil fuels.
3) Natural Gas
Properties of coal.
– Made up of carbon
Now, understand the Formation of Coal.
– Coal was formed by the decomposition of large land plants and trees buried under the earth about 300 million years ago.
– About 300 million years ago the earth had dense forests in low lying wetland areas.
– Due to natural processes (like flooding, earthquake, volcano eruption) these forests got buried under the soil.
– As more soil deposited over them, they were compressed. The temperature also rose as they sank deeper and deeper.
– Under high pressure and high temperature, dead plants got slowly converted to coal.
– As coal contains mainly carbon, the slow process of conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called carbonization.
– Since it was formed from the remains of vegetation, coal is also called a fossil fuel.
All the above-mentioned topics are described in an interactive and efficient manner so that the students could easily understand them.
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