Excretory System in Humans | CBSE Class 10 Science | Biology

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Excretory System in Humans | CBSE Class 10 Science | Biology

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What is Excretion?

The life of every organism depends on certain basic processes. Excretion is one among them. Different organisms follow different modes of excretion. In complex organisms including humans, there is a specialized system for excretion called the human excretory system.

Different organisms follow different modes of excretion such as kidney, lungs, skin, and eyes depending on their habitat and food habit.

Excretory System Organs
The human excretory system organs include:

A pair of kidneys
A pair of ureters
A urinary bladder
A urethra

For example- Aquatic animals excrete waste in the form of ammonia, while birds and insects excrete mainly uric acid. Humans produce urea as the major excretory product.

Mechanism of Excretion in Humans
The process of excretion in humans takes place in the following steps:

Urine Formation
The urine is formed in the nephrons and involves the following steps:

Glomerular Filtration
Tubular Reabsorption

Glomerular Filtration
It is the primary step in urine formation. In this process, the excess fluid and waste products from the kidney are filtered out of the blood into the urine collection tubules of the kidney and eliminated out of the body.

The amount of filtrate produced by the kidneys every minute is known as Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR).

Tubular Reabsorption
It is the absorption of ions and molecules such as sodium ions, glucose, amino acids, water etc. Water involves passive absorption, while glucose and sodium ions are absorbed by an active process.

Potassium ions, hydrogen ions, and ammonia are secreted out to maintain the equilibrium between the body fluids.

All the above-mentioned topics are described in an interactive and efficient manner so that the students could easily understand them.

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