NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 3: The Delhi Sultans | English | CBSE

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Dr. Manishika Jain explains NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 3: The Delhi Sultans
1st capital under Tomara Rajputs in 12th Century (defeated by Chauhans of Ajmer)
Coins minted – called Delhiwal
Jain merchants center
As a sultanate empire in 13th Century
Histories called tarikh (singular) / tawarikh (plural) in Persian by learned scholars – lived in cities, wrote for good rewards & maintain social order on birth right and gender distinctions (1236: Raziya daughter of Iltutmish became emperor but was removed in 1240 – Minhaj-i Siraj, recognized that she was more able and qualified than all her brothers)
Rudramadevi (1262-1289), of Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal, part of modern Andhra Pradesh – Pretended as male and changed name
Queen Didda in Kashmir (980-1003) has title “didi” or “elder sister” – loved ruler by her subjects.
Prepare Manuscript
Prepare Paper
Write text
Melt gold
Prepare Binding
Circle of Justice
Kings (requires) ⃗ Soldiers (requires) ⃗ Salaries (from) ⃗ Revenue (by peasants) (pays) ⃗ Happy (happens when) ⃗ king promotes justice

13th Century: Delhi was fortified town occupied by garrisons, seldom control on hinterland – dependent on trade, tribute and plunder for supplies
Expansion occurred during Ghiyasuddin Balban, Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad Tughluq
Consolidating hinterlands of Ganga-Yamuna doab – given to peasants and agriculture.
New fortresses and towns were established to protect trade routes and to promote regional trade.
Second expansion: External frontier & military expedition in south – army captured horses, elephants and slaves.
Alauddin Khilji’s Campaign

Mosque & Masjids
Quwwat al-Islam mosque and minaret: Built in 12th Century as congregational mosque described in chronicles as Dehli-i-kuhna (the old city). Enlarged by Iltutmish and Alauddin Khalji. Minar was built by three Sultans– Qutbuddin Aybak, Iltutmish and Firuz Shah Tughluq

Clients loyal to patrons and not to heirs
New Sultans had own servants
Conflict between new and old nobility
Muhammad Tughluq appointed Aziz Khummar (wine distiller), Firuz Hajjam (barber), Mank a Tabbakh (cook), and two gardeners, Ladha and Pira, to high administrative posts
Military commanders: lands were called iqta and their holder was called iqtadar or muqti – led military campaign and collected revenue as salary – collected taxes only by state
Sultans forced landed chieftains (samanta aristocrats) & rich landlords to accept their authority
Taxes: Cultivation called kharaj 50% of peasant’s produce, on cattle and on houses
Distant provinces became independent
Mongols under Genghis Khan invaded Transoxiana in northeast Iran in 1219
Attacks increased during Allauddin Khalji (mobilized army with high administrative charges)
Alauddin Khalji Muhammad Tughluq
Delhi attacked twice. Maintained huge army Mongols defeated
Maintained huge army
Constructed garrison town – Siri Oldest of 4 cities – Delhi-i-Kuhna was emptied, residents of old city were sent to new capital of Daulatabad in south
Soldiers fed by taxes collected from land between doab (50%) Produce from same area was collected as tax to feed army
Soldiers paid in cash Soldiers paid in cash
Prices of goods were controlled Token currency introduced
Administrative measures were successful Administrative measures were failure – Kashmir campaigns were disaster & token currency was recalled
Sayyids & Lodis

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0:00 Introduction: NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 3: The Delhi Sultans
0:52 Delhi
5:35 Prepare Manuscript
6:25 Circle of Justice
7:43 13th Century
9:25 Alauddin Khilji’s Campaign
9:58 Mosque & Masjids
10:05 Quwwat al-Islam Mosque and Minaret
10:38 Begumpuri Mosque
11:00 Congregational Mosque
11:37 Khiljis & Tughluqs
13:58 Mongols
16:06 Sayyids & Lodis
16:50 Three Orders

#Congregational #Fortresses #Tribute #Garrisons #Promotes #Manuscript #Recognized #Pretended #Histories #Merchants #Manishika #Examrace

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